F1 Generation

The offspring of cross-pollinated P1 generation plants.

Facilitated Diffusion

A process in which substances move down their concentration gradient across the cell membrane with the assistance of carrier proteins.

Facultative Anaerobe

An organism that can metabolize with or without oxygen.

Fallopian Tube

A tube through which eggs move from the ovary to the uterus.

Fallow land

This denotes cultivable land which after abandonment remains uncultivated over long  period called old fallow those kept uncultivated during the current year are called current fallows


In taxonomy, a group of related genera.


Land used for agricultural purposes. The federal government recognizes prime farmland and unique farmland as the most important categories. According to USDA, the United States has had roughly 1 billion acres of farmland. Farmland consists of cropland, pastureland, and grazing land.


A dense bundle of skeletal muscle fibers.

Fatty Acid

A monomer that is part of most lipids.


All of the animals found in a given area.


Waste materials that pass through the anus or cloacal opening.

Feedback Mechanism

A series of events in which the last step controls the first.


A domesticated species that has adapted to existence in the wild state but remains   distinct from other wild species. Examples are the wild horses and burros of the West and the wild goats and pigs of Hawaii.


A process in which cells make a limited amount of ATP by converting glucose into another organic compound, such as lactic acid or ethyl alcohol, in the absence of oxygen.


A compound that provides plants with essential mineral nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus.


Any organic or inorganic material, either natural or synthetic, used to supply essential elements for plant growth mainly nitrogen, phosphate and potash

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

A condition characterized by growth and developmental defects affecting some children born to women who drink alcohol during pregnancy.


Referring to a developing human from the end of the eighth week until birth.


The long, sticky threads that function in blood clotting.

Fibrous Root System

A mat of threadlike roots that spread out below the surface of the soil to maximize exposure to water and minerals and to anchor the plant firmly to the soil.


In flowers, the structure that supports the anther.

Filamentous Alga

An alga that has a slender, rod-shaped thallus composed of rows of cells joined end to end.

Filarial Worm

One of a variety of parasitic roundworms that cause elephantiasis in humans and heartworm disease in dogs.

Filter Feeding

The method by which a sessile organism screens food out of the surrounding water.


A type of asexual reproduction in which the organism splits in two and regenerates the parts missing on each new half to produce two whole organisms.

Flame Cell

In a flatworm, a cell that collects excess body water and transfers it to the excretory system.


The common name for any of the dorso–ventrally flattened worms of the phylum Platyhelminthes, such as a planarian, fluke, and a tapeworm.

Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide

A compound that accepts electrons during redox reactions.

Flight Feather

A specialized contour feather on the wing or tail of a bird.


A method of irrigation, where the land is supplied with sufficient water enough to stand above the surface


Organisms of the plant kingdom.

Flora and fauna

The plants and animals that are native to a particular area or period of time.

Fluid Mosaic Model

A model of cell membrane structure representing the dynamic nature of membrane lipids and proteins.


A leaf-shaped parasitic flatworm.


The route followed by migratory birds.

Foliose Lichen

A type of lichen that lives on soil surfaces, where it forms a matlike growth.

Food Chain

Pathway beginning with producers along which energy is transferred from trophic level to trophic level.

Food chain

A group of organisms in which there is a transfer of food energy through a series of repeated eating and being eaten; in an ecosystem, plants and animals are linked together by their nutritional requirements with the help of a food chain.

Food web

The combination of all the feeding relationships that exist in an ecosystem. Most prey species are eaten by many different predators, and most predators eat more than one prey item. As a result, a picture of a trophic system with lines (representing ecological relationships) drawn between predators and prey soon resembles an intricate web.

Food Web

The interconnected food chains in an ecosystem.


An ancient group of shelled sarcodines found in oceans.


The remains or traces of a once-living organism.


A remnant, impression, mineralized mold, amber encasement, or other trace of a once-living organism. Technically, anything that once lived and has been permanently preserved is a fossil, but the most common usage implies great age. This common usage of fossil generally refers to the mineralized remains or impressions, preserved in stone (almost always sedimentary rock), of extinct organisms from past geologic ages.

Fossil fuel

Products of partial of complete decomposition of plants and animals that occur as crude oil, coal, natural gas, or heavy oils as a result of exposure to heat and pressure in earth's crust over millions of years.

Fossil fuels

Fuels – such as coal, gas, peat and oil – that are formed in the ground over a long time from dead plants and animals and are used up once they are burned for energy.

Fossil record

The cumulative taxonomic information and historical perspective provided by the wealth and diversity of fossils and related geologic data stored in the earth's crust.


A crack or break in a bone.


In fungi, a form of asexual reproduction in which individual cells are released that act like spores.

Frame Shift Mutation

A mutation that results in the misreading of the code during translation because of a change in the reading frame.


The mature leaf of a fern.


A mature plant ovary; a modified flower part that encloses a seed or seeds.

Fruiting Body

Spore-bearing structure of a slime mold during reproduction.


A shrublike lichen.


A carotenoid pigment that is one of the primary pigments found in diatoms and brown algae.


A vaporized pesticide used to control pests in soil, buildings and greenhouses, and chambers holding products such as fruits

Functional Group

A structural building block that determines the characteristics of a chemical compound.

Fundamental Niche

The full range of conditions that a species can tolerate and resources it can use.

Fungi Imperfecti or Deuteromycota

A group of fungi whose sexual phase has not been discovered.


Any pesticide used to control, deter, or destroy fungi, which are forms of plant life (including molds and yeasts) that lack chlorophyll and are unable to make their own food (such as the plant pathogen, powdery mildew).


The fused collarbones in a bird’s skeleton; the “wishbone”.

Furrow irrigation

Small, shallow channels guide water across the surface of a leveled field. Crops are typically grown on a ridge or raised bed between the furrows. This is the major irrigation system that is based on gravity

Futures contract

An agreement between two people one who sells and agrees to deliver, and one who buys and agrees to receive a certain kind, quality, and quantity of products to be delivered during a specified delivery month at a specified price