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Punjab has made an unparalleled progress in the agriculture since the advent of Green Revolution (in the mid sixties) with traditional agriculture progressively giving way to modern and commercial agriculture. To understand the prevailing agricultural system for having sustainable production in the state, an overall perspective about its agri-resources is required. The first essential step in this direction is demarcation of land units of the state by accurate or precise representation in terms of major climate and growing period, which is climatically suitable for certain range of crops and cultivars. This may be achieved by dividing & studying the region through Agro-Climatic Zones, which are the important tools for understanding existing available resources and prevailing climatic conditions, need-based, location specific technology that needs to be generated. 

Punjab is divided into five agro-climatic zones on the basis of homogeneity, rainfall pattern, distribution, soil texture, cropping patterns etc.

Zone


Agro-climatic Zones

Districts Covered

I

Sub-mountain undulating zone

Gurdaspur , Pathankot & Hoshiarpur

 

II

Undulating plain zone

SAS Nagar (Mohali), Ropar & SBS Nagar (Nawanshahr)

 

III

Central plain zone

Amritsar, Tarn Taran, Kapurthala, Jalandhar, Ludhiana, Fatehgarh Sahib, Sangrur & Patiala

 

IV

Western plain zone

Firozepur & Faridkot

 

 

V

Western zone

Moga, Bathinda, Mansa, Muktsar, Sangrur & Barnala

  

Agro-Climatic Zones of Punjab


 

Source: Department of Revenue,  2012


 

Major Features of the Agro-Climatic Zones of Punjab

 

Sub Region

Rainfall

(in mm)

 

Climate

Soil

Most suitable Crops

 

AGROCLIMATIC FEATURES OF ZONE I & II

 

High altitude temperate

165

Humid to cold arid

Hill soils, Mountain, Meadow Skeletal, Tarai

Wheat, Maize, Rice, Jowar.

Hill temperate

2000

 Humid

Brown Hill

Rice, Maize, Wheat, Rapeseed

Valley temperate

400

Sub-humid

Sub-mountain, Mountain Skeletal, Meadow

Wheat, Maize, Rice, Sugarcane.

Sub-tropical

1030

Semi-arid to humid

Alluvial (Recent), Brown hills.

Wheat, Barley, Potato.

Average rain fall

900

 

 

 

 

 

AGRO CLIMATIC FEATURES OF ZONE III, IV & V

 

Plains – Zone III

561

Semi-arid to Dry sub-humid

Alluvial (Recent)

 Wheat, Rice, Maize, Sugarcane

Scarce Rainfall arid region -Zone IV and V

360

Arid & Extreme Arid

Calcareous, Sierozemic, Alluvial (Recent), Desert

Wheat, Cotton, Gram, Bajra, Rice

 

The State has a Flood Plain region which is locally known as Bet area. Patiala, Ropar, Sangrur, Bathinda, Ferozepur districts fall under Bet area. This region has four components, Satluj, Beas, Ravi & Gagghar with an area of 3500 sq. km which is 7 percent area of the state. The flood plains transversally cut across the state in the east-west cross section, so the region is not homogenous in climatic conditions. The climate of different segments of Flood Plain region corresponds to the surrounding agro-climatic zone.

At present, 82 percent of the geographical area of the state is under cultivation. The cropping intensity is 191 percent with over 95 percent of the cultivable area being under assured irrigation. The gross area sown in the state was 7823 thousand hectares & Net area sown was 4130 thousand hectares during 2016-17. However, the gross area sown increased to 7839 thousand Hectares & Net area sown decreased to 4118 thousand hectares during 2018-19. As per Statistical Abstract of 2018-19, the state has highest yield of rice (4132 Kgs per hectare) and wheat (5188 Kgs per hectare).

The food grain production in the state has increased from 3.16 million tons in 1960-61 to 31.53 million tones in 2018-19 as a result of introduction of High Yielding Varieties & new technologies to the hard working and highly receptive farmers with the support of the government policies. The state known as “Granary of India” has played key role in transforming India from a famine affected & grain importing nation to self reliant& export surplus nation by contributing to the central pool over the years. Punjab contributed 35.5 percent of Wheat and 25.5 percent of rice to central pool during the year 2018-19.

The gains resulting from the success of ever increasing food grain production during the past five decades, have not been without their consequent environmental & socio-economic costs. The major environmental issues assailing the agriculture in the state includes alarming decline in water table, deterioration soil health, non-judicious use of farm chemicals, reduced genetic diversity, crop residue management & over all degradation of fragile agro-ecosystem. Thus, it has resulted in greater impacts on environment & climate and health of people in the state. The stagnated yields and high cost of inputs are also leading to diminishing economic returns to farming community in the state.

Imperative initiatives are required to keep the agricultural economy of the state in stable condition like increase in R& D, crop diversification and to restore rural non-farm activities to put the agriculture sector of the state on fast track.

 

Basic Characteristics of Agriculture in Punjab


 Net sown area (hectare)

4118000

Area Sown more than once (hectare)

3721000

Cropping Intensity (%)

  191

Contribution to Central Pool (%):

  • Wheat
  • Paddy

 
35.5

25.5

 Average yield (kg/ha)-

  • Wheat
  • Paddy
  • Cotton

 

5188

4132 

779

  • Gross Cropped Area(hectare)
  • Gross Irrigated Area(hectare)

  • Net Irrigated Area (hectare):

-          By Canals

-          By Tubewells

7839000

7758000

 

 


1169000

2907000

Fertilizer Consumption (Nutrient Tonnes) :

Nitrogenous (N)

Phosphatic (P)

Potassic (K)

 

1498000 

333000

53000

 Source: Statistical Abstract of Punjab, 2019