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Punjab has made an unparalleled progress in the agriculture since the advent of Green Revolution in the mid sixties with traditional agriculture progressively giving way to modern and commercial agriculture. At present, 82 percent of the geographical area of the state is under cultivation and cropping intensity is around 190 percent with over 99 percent of the cultivable area being under assured irrigation. The gross area sown in the state was 7823 thousand Hectares & Net area sown was 4130 thousand hectares during 2016-17. However, the gross area sown increased to 7825 thousand Hectares & Net area sown decreased to 4125 thousand Hectares during 2017-18(P). As per Economic Survey 2017-18, the state has highest yield of rice (4366 Kgs per hectare) and wheat (5077 Kgs per hectare).

The food grain production in the state has increased from 3.16 million tons in 1960-61 to 31.67 million tones in 2017-18 (P) as a result of introduction of High Yielding Varieties & new technologies to the hard working and highly receptive farmers with the support of the government policies. The state known as “Granary of India” has played key role in transforming India from a famine affected & grain importing nation to self reliant & export surplus nation by contributing to the central pool over the years. Punjab contributed 37.9 percent of Wheat and 30.9 percent of rice to central pool during the year 2017-18 (P).

The gains resulting from the success of ever increasing food grain production during the past 5 decades, have not been without their consequent environmental & socio-economic costs. The major environmental issues assailing the agriculture in the state includes alarming decline in water table, deterioration soil health, non-judicious use of farm chemicals, reduced genetic diversity, crop residue management and over all degradation of fragile agro-ecosystem. The stagnated yields and high cost of inputs are also leading to diminishing economic returns to farming community in the state.

Imperative initiatives are required to keep the agricultural economy of the state in stable condition like increase in R& D, crop diversification and to restore rural non-farm activities to put the agriculture sector of the state on fast track.

Basic Characteristics of Agriculture in Punjab:


Net sown area:

4125 Thousand Hectare

Gross Cropped area:

7825 Thousand Hectare

Area Sown more than once

3700 Thousand Hectare

Cropping Intensity:


Contribution to Central Pool

  • Wheat
  • Paddy


37.9 %



Average yield :

  • Wheat
  • Paddy
  • Cotton



5077 kg./ha

4366 kg/ha 

753 kg/ha

  • Gross Croped Area
  • Gross Irrigated Area

7825 Thousand Hectare

7767 Thousand Hectare

Fertilizer Consumption :

Nitrogenous (N)

Phosphatic (P)

Potassic (K)


1401 Thousand Nutrient Tonnes

402 Thousand Nutrient Tonnes

75 Thousand Nutrient Tonnes


Source: Deptt. of Agriculture, Punjab, 2018

& Statistical Abstract of Punjab, 2018