Swachh Bharat or Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is a national level campaign by the Government of India, officially launched on 2 October 2014 at Rajghat, New Delhi on 150 birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi. The 'Swachh Bharat Abhiyan' is a massive mass movement that seeks to fulfill Mahatma Gandhi's vision of Clean India.

It aims to cover 4,041 statutory towns to clean the streets, roads and infrastructure of the country. This campaign is India's biggest ever cleanliness drive/event wherein 3 million government employees and schools and colleges students of India participated. The mission was started by Mr. Narendra Modi, the Prime Minister of India, nominating nine famous personalities for this campaign, and further, they take up the challenge and nominate nine more people and so on(like the branching of a tree). It has been carried forward since then with famous people from all walks of life joining it.

Need of Swachh Bharat or Swachh Bharat Abhiyan

India has a massive problem of open defecation. More than 72 percent of rural people in India respond to their nature's call behind bushes, in fields or on roadsides. This has led to various other problems like untimely deaths of children, spread of infections and diseases and most importantly rapes of young girls who go to deserted places to relieve themselves. India has a population of more 1.2 billion people, out of which nearly 600 million people or 55 percent has no access to toilets. Even in areas, where there are toilets in rural India (32 percent of rural households, as per the 2012 data), there are no running water facilities available. Slum dwellers in cities have no access to running water supply and also toilets.

Considering this grave problem of rural sanitation in India and open defecation, the Government had launched Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan in 1999. In this Abhiyan, a target was set for universal household sanitation coverage by 2012. This was an integral part of the Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) launched in 1991. However, the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan could not achieve its objectives.

Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan has now been restructured by the present Government as "Swachh Bharat Abhiyan" with the objective of making India a "clean" India by stopping the problem of open defecation, building up of toilets for all households, providing running water supply, treating of solid and liquid wastes in a proper manner. This drive also includes cleaning of roads, pavements, and clearing of encroachments in unauthorised areas. Above all, the project aims at creating awareness among people about the need for proper sanitation and hygienic facilities.





On 2 October, 2014, nine celebrities were nominated from various fields to propagate the mission, considering the new age marketing via social media by Mr. Narendra Modi, the Prime Minister of India.

Further, on 25 December, nine more people were nominated including the comedian Kapil Sharma, Sourav Ganguly, Kiran Bedi, Padmanabha Acharya, Nagaland Governor, Sonal Mansingh, Ramoji Rao of Eenadu group and Aroon Purie to take forward his “Swachh Bharat Abhiyaan”. Some organisations such as the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, India Today, Eenadu and the popular “dabbewale” of Mumbai were also nominated to be the torchbearers.

Swatch Bharat Guidelines



Swatch Bharat Guidelines

Swachh Bharat Mission: Urban Areas

 The mission aims to cover 1.04 crore households, provide 2.5 lakh community toilets, 2.6 lakh public toilets, and a solid waste management facility in each town. Under the programme, community toilets will be built in residential areas where it is difficult to construct individual household toilets. Public toilets will also be constructed in designated locations such as tourist places, markets, bus stations, railway stations, etc. The programme will be implemented over a five-year period in 4,401 towns. Of the Rs 62,009 crore likely to be spent on the programme, the Centre will pitch in Rs 14,623 crore. Of the Centre’s share of Rs 14,623 crore, Rs 7,366 crore will be spent on solid waste management, Rs 4,165 crore on individual household toilets, Rs 1,828 crore on public awareness and Rs 655 crore on community toilets.

Source: Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India

Swachh Bharat Mission: Gramin Areas

 The Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan has been restructured into the Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin). The mission aims to make India an open defecation free country in Five Years. Under the mission, One lakh thirty four thousand crore rupees will be spent for construction of about 11 crore 11 lakh toilets in the country. Technology will be used on a large scale to convert waste into wealth in rural India in the forms of bio-fertilizer and different forms of energy. The mission is to be executed on war footing with the involvement of every gram panchayat, panchayat samiti and Zila Parishad in the country, besides roping in large sections of rural population and school teachers and students in this endeavor.

As part of the mission, for rural households, the provision for unit cost of individual household latrine has been increased from Rs 10,000 to Rs 12,000 so as to provide for water availability, including for storing, hand-washing and cleaning of toilets. Central share for such latrines will be Rs 9,000 while state share will be Rs 3,000. For North Eastern states, Jammu & Kashmir and special category states, the Central share will be 10,800 and the state share Rs 1,200. Additional contributions from other sources will be permitted.

 Objectives of the Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) 

  • Bring about an improvement in the general quality of life in the rural areas.
  • Accelerate sanitation coverage in rural areas to achieve the vision of Swachh Bharat by 2019 with all Gram Panchayats in the country attaining Nirmal status.
  • Motivate communities and Panchayati Raj Institutions promoting sustainable sanitation facilities through awareness creation and health education.
  • Encourage cost effective and appropriate technologies for ecologically safe and sustainable sanitation.
  • Develop community managed environmental sanitation systems focusing on solid & liquid waste management for overall cleanliness in the rural areas.

Swachh Survekshan -2016 – ranks of 73 cities

Mysuru tops the list; Dhanbad at the bottom

15 Leaders, 20 Aspiring Leaders, 18 cities needing acceleration, 20 Slow Movers identified

73 cities surveyed for cleanliness have been categorized based on the marks scored by each of them in the ‘Swachh Survekshan-2016’ survey, results of which were announced by the Urban Development Minister Shri M.Venkaiah Naidu today.

15 cities who scored more than 70% of the total marks of 2000 were categorized as Leaders, 20 cities with scores in the range of 60%-70% are Aspiring Leaders, those with scores in the range of 50%-60% are the cities who need to accelerate their efforts and cities who scored below 50% are named Slow Movers who need to work harder to improve sanitation.

“RANKING OF CITIES ON THE BASIS OF SWACHH BHARAT MISSION”

Rank

City

State

Total Score

Score obtained

1

Mysuru

Karnataka

2000

1749

2

Chandigarh

Chandigarh

2000

1716

3

Tiruchirappalli

Tamil Nadu

2000

1715

4

Delhi-NDMC

Delhi

2000

1704

5

Visakhapatnam

Andhra Pradesh

2000

1643

6

Surat

Gujarat

2000

1605

7

Rajkot

Gujarat

2000

1574

8

Gangtok

Sikkim

2000

1565

9

Pimpri Chinchwad

Maharashtra

2000

1559

10

Greater Mumbai

Maharashtra

2000

1534

11

Pune

Maharashtra

2000

1533

12

Navi Mumbai

Maharashtra

2000

1530

13

Vadodara

Gujarat

2000

1511

14

Ahmedabad

Gujarat

2000

1452

15

Imphal

Manipur

2000

1441

16

Panaji

Goa

2000

1385

17

Thane

Maharashtra

2000

1367

18

Coimbatore

Tamil Nadu

2000

1361

19

Hyderabad

Telangana

2000

1355

20

Nagpur

Maharashtra

2000

1348

21

Bhopal

Madhya Pradesh

2000

1336

22

Allahabad

Uttar Pradesh

2000

1323

23

Vijayawada

Andhra Pradesh

2000

1284

24

Bhubaneshwar

Odisha

2000

1279

25

Indore

Madhya Pradesh

2000

1276

26

Madurai

Tamil Nadu

2000

1245

27

Shimla

Himachal Pradesh

2000

1244

28

Lucknow

Uttar Pradesh

2000

1237

29

Jaipur

Rajasthan

2000

1236

30

Gwalior

Madhya Pradesh

2000

1235

31

Nashik

Maharashtra

2000

1232

32

Warangal

Telangana

2000

1226

33

Agartala

Tripura

2000

1222

34

Ludhiana

Punjab

2000

1222

35

Vasai - Virar

Maharashtra

2000

1215

36

Gurgaon

Haryana

2000

1194

37

Chennai

Tamil Nadu

2000

1194

38

Bengaluru

Karnataka

2000

1182

39

Delhi - SDMC

DELHI

2000

1180

40

Thiruvananthapuram

Kerala

2000

1167

41

Aizawl

Mizoram

2000

1138

42

Gandhinagar

Gujarat

2000

1133

43

Delhi - North DMC

DELHI

2000

1132

44

Kozhikode

Kerala

2000

1107

45

Kanpur

Uttar Pradesh

2000

1090

46

Durg

Chhattisgarh

2000

1089

47

Agra

Uttar Pradesh

2000

1081

48

Srinagar

J&K

2000

1072

49

Amritsar

Punjab

2000

1062

50

Guwahati

Assam

2000

1041

51

Faridabad

Haryana

2000

1037

52

Delhi - EDMC

DELHI

2000

1015

53

Shillong

Meghalaya

2000

1012

54

Hubli and Dharwad city

Karnataka

2000

992

55

Kochi

Kerala

2000

990

56

Aurangabad

Maharashtra

2000

981

57

Jodhpur

Rajasthan

2000

971

58

Kota

Rajasthan

2000

954

59

Cuttack

Odisha

2000

925

60

Kohima

Nagaland

2000

893

61

Dehradun

Uttarakhand

2000

876

62

Ranchi

Jharkhand

2000

874

63

Jabalpur

Madhya Pradesh

2000

872

64

Kalyan Dombivli

Maharashtra

2000

858

65

Varanasi

Uttar Pradesh

2000

839

66

Jamshedpur

Jharkhand

2000

827

67

Ghaziabad

Uttar Pradesh

2000

820

68

Raipur

Chhattisgarh

2000

818

69

Meerut

Uttar Pradesh

2000

760

70

Patna

Bihar

2000

746

71

Itanagar

Arunachal Pradesh

2000

639

72

Asansol-Durgapur

West Bengal

2000

497

73

Dhanbad

Jharkhand

2000

464

Source: Question raised in Rajya Sabha on Ranking of Cities on the basis of Swachh Bharat Mission

Individual household latrines (IHHLs) constructed under NBA/SBM (G)

Source: The Hindu, October 6th, 2016