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The state has highest net irrigated area (percentage) in the India and agriculture sector accounts for about 85% of water consumption in the state. Out of the total area of 4158 Th. ha under agriculture in state, an area of 4070 Th. ha (97.9%) is getting irrigation from canals(27%) and tubewells(73%). However, there has been a significant reduction canal irrigated area in the state since 1990 and area irrigated by centrifugal tubewells has been increasing. This is due to increased demand of water, reduction in canal capacity due to siltation and the easy credit facilities for tubewell installation with some subsidy, besides liberal facilities for electrification of tubewells. Hence, the ground water is being over exploited to meet the increasing demands of water for irrigation intensive agricultural practices The present ground water development in the state is 170% with ground water in 80% geographical area of the state is over exploited. The centrifugal pumps are becoming redundant and being replaced with submersible pumps especially in central Punjab due to depletion of underground water table. Details have been given in Subject Area link 'Water'.

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