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The food grain production in the state has increased from 3.16 million tons in 1960-61 to 31.67 million tons in 2017-18 (P) as a result of introduction of High Yielding Varieties & new technologies to the hard working and highly receptive farmers with the support of the government policies.

The production of the wheat has increased from 7,677 thousand metric tons in 1980-81 to 17830 thousand metric tons in 2017-18 (P) and the production of rice has increased from 3,233 thousand metric tons in 1980-81 to 13382 thousand metric tons  in 2017-18 (P).

However, the production of pulses has decreased from 12 thousand metric ton in 2014-15(P) to 9 Thousand metric tons in 2017-18(P). The production of sugarcane has shown different trends over the years, as it increased from 5592 thousand metric tons in 1990-91 to 8024 thousand metric tons in 2017-18(P). However, it decreased during 2010-11 (4904 thousand metric tons) to 2012-13 (5191 thousand metric tons). The production of cotton (cleaned) has decreased from 1822 thousand metric tons in 2011-12 to thousand metric tons in 2017-18(P).

Source: Statistical Abstract of Punjab, 2018

The state has witnessed a considerable change on cropping pattern in the post green revolution era with major focus on wheat-paddy crop rotation. The area under wheat and paddy has increased manifolds during the last 5 decades, whereas the area under oilseeds, pulses, maize other cereals, etc has decreased sharply. The HYVs have replaced the multi- cropping pattern with monoculture of wheat and rice resulting in exploitation of natural resources of state especially water and soil, besides leading to loss of floral biodiversity. Most HYVs are highly input intensive leading to higher use of irrigation water, fertilizers and pesticides for their optimum growth and yield. The cropping intensity (ratio of net sown area to gross cropped area) in the state has increased sharply from 126% in 1960-61 to 190% in 2017-18 (P) with adoption of input intensive agricultural practices. As per State of Indian Agriculture Report, 2012-13, Punjab has the highest cropping intensity in the country closely followed by West Bengal (185%), Haryana (181%), Himachal Pradesh (173%) and Orrisa (162%) as compared to all India percentage 138%.  The high cropping intensity severely affects soil fertility as it leaves no time natural rejuvenation

Area under Major Crops in Punjab

Wheat and Paddy cover the major portion of the gross cropped area and area under these two crops has increased from 1970-71 to 2017-18. Area under wheat has however slightly increased from 3510 thousand hectares in 2010-11 to 3512 thousand hectares in 2017-18(P). Area under Paddy was increased from 2830 thousand hectares in 2010-11 to 3065 thousand hectares in 2017-18(P).

Source: Director of Land Records/Agriculture, Punjab