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The soils in Punjab are alkaline in nature with low to medium Nitrogen (N) content, medium Phosphorus  (P) content  and medium to high in Potash ( K) content.  The soil is saline in the southern districts of the state. The intensive  agricultural practices with the mono-cropping pattern of  wheat-paddy crops  in past three decades   has  resulted in steady decline in its fertility, both with respect to macro (NPK) and micronutrients (zinc , iron & manganese).  The burning of wheat and paddy stubbles & left over straw in fields is also contributing to loss of soil fertility.

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