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Air pollution has adverse impacts on human health, plants, animal, materials and as well as, in its global implications like depletion of the ozone layer, green house effects, etc.

Affects on Human Health: Air Pollutants usually enter the body through the respiratory system or skin and may affect specific organs as shown in the table below:

Name of the Pollutant

Affect  on Human Health


Central nervous system affected at 15 mg/m3


Increased mortality at 0.25 mg/m3 with 750mg/m3 smoke.
Induced respiratory illness in children at 0.046 mg/m3 with smoke at 100 mg/m3 for long term exposure.
Throat irritation at 8-12 mg/m3. Eye irritation at 10mg/m3.
Immediate coughing at 20 mg/m3


Irritation of nose & throat, respiratory problems especially bronchial asthma, skin diseases, eye irritation


Increased respiratory illness over 6 months test period at 0.06-0.109 mg/m3


Irritate nose & throat at 0.05 mg/m3

Headache( in 30 m) at 1 mg/m3  

Affects on Plants, Animals and Goods:

  • Food, foliage and ornamental crops harmed by air pollutants show chlorosis and necrosis and decreased yield.
  • Some of the substances responsible for plant damage are ethylene, sulphur dioxide, acid mists, fluorides, ozone and a number of organic oxidants. SO2 fumes; iron and copper smelter can bleach and cause interveinal blotching in wheat, cotton, and in apple etc.
  • The animals are mainly affected by fluoride, CO and hydrocarbons, which result in fluorosis of bones and teeth and pulmonary diseases, heavy metal toxicity, etc.
  • Further, other material goods are also adversely affected by air pollution. SO2 speeds up deterioration of marble and limestone (the potential damage to Taj Mahal of Agra from Mathura refinery is a perfect example).  

The various Affects of Noise Pollution are categorized below:

  • Auditory effects: These include auditory fatigue and deafness. Auditory fatigue appears in the 90 db and may be associated with side effects as whistling and buzzing in ears. Deafness can be caused due to continuous noise exposure
  • Non auditory effects: These include interference with speech communication, annoyance, loss of working efficiency and physiological disorders .

Mitigation Measures for Controlling Air Pollution:

  • Use of clean & efficient fuels (like CNG) and regular maintenance and check up of vehicles for their emissions. Lead free petrol has been introduced in the state since 2000.
  • Adoption of low waste technologies and use of particulate removal devices like bag filters, electrostatic precipitators and scrubbers in industries for end of pipe treatment.
  • Use of gas removal devices using absorption, activated carbon absorbers adsorption (molecular sieve) and catalytic converters.
  • Planting of green belts.
  • Use of tall chimneys for release of pollutants into upper layers of the atmosphere so that air near the   ground remains clean.
  • Ban on burning of rice husk in the fields and promotion of its mulching and composting.
  • With the alarming increase in the atmospheric pollution in the state in the last two decades, there is an urgent need to take collective measures both, by public and government, to save its ecology for the sustainable development in future.
  • Environment awareness and education needs to be promoted to promote voluntary people's participation for environment protection.