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Water Supply and Sanitation

Depth to Water Level - January 2014

During January 2014, in Punjab, it is observed that in 8% of the wells, water level ranges in 0-2 m depth range. About 16% of the wells analysed have shown water level in the range of 2-5 m bgl and a major percentage of wells i.e. 21% fall in the range of 5-10 mbgl. 34% of the wells show water levels in the range of of 10-20 m bgl. 22 % wells have shown water level in the range of 20-40 m bgl. The depth to water level recorded in the state during January 2014 ranges from ground level to 37.33 m bgl.

Source : Central Ground Water Board, 2014

Water Level Fluctuation-January 2014 to January 2013 Water level data of January 2014 was compared with that of January 2013.The analysis shows that there is rise in water level in about 65% of the wells and fall in about 34% of the wells. 1% well shows no change. Out of 65% wells showing rise, about 58% wells have shown a rise in 0-2 m range and 3 % in 2-4 m range. About 30% of the wells show fall in 0-2 m range. Maximum rise in water level has been recorded as 8.23 m and maximum fall in water level has been recorded as 4.70 m in the State.

 Water Level Fluctuation (January 2014 to Premonsoon 2013) The water level of January 2014 when compared with Premonsoon 2013 indicates that there is rise in water level in almost most part of the state. About 74% of the wells analysed shows a rise in water level. The water level rise between 0-2 m has been observed in 64 % of the wells analysed and 5% of wells showing rise in the range of 2-4 m. 5 % of the wells shows rise of more than 4 m. Decline in water levels is observed in 25% of the wells analysed. The fall of 0-2 m has been observed in 24% of the wells monitored.

 Fluctuation - January 2014 to January Decadal mean (2004-13) The fluctuation of water level during January 2014 when compared with the average water level of past decade (Decadal mean January 2004-2013) indicates decline as well as rise of water level in all the districts of Punjab State. About 52% of wells have shown decline, of which 36% wells show water level decline in the range of 0-2 m, 9% of wells reported decline between 2-4 m. Decline of more than 4 m has been observed in 6% of the wells analysed. Rise in water level is observed in 48% of the wells. Out of this, 43% of the wells analysed is showing rise in the range of 0-2 m and 5% of the wells showing rise of more than 2 m.

Ground Water Quality:

Ground Water Quality in Punjab has huge variation in different zones of the state, The quality of ground water changes from good to poor from North to South/South West. The ground water in South Western district of Punjab namely, Mansa, Bathinda, Muktsar, Ferozepur and Faridkot contain varying concentrations of soluble salts and their use for irrigation adversely affects agricultural production. The ground water of the state has been grouped into three categories i.e. good, marginal and poor. This has been based upon the variation in Electrical Conductivity (EC) and Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) Values. For good quality of Ground water, RSC shall be below 2.5me/L & EC below 2.00 dS/m (Source: Directorate of Water Resources & Environment, Punjab).

Good Quality Ground Water:

This category of ground water occupies about 51% of total geographical area of the state. The good quality ground water is present along the flood plains of Sutluj, Beas, Ravi and Ghaggar rivers and also in the vicinity of major canals due to recharge of ground water aquifer with fresh water. Uppar Bari Doab plain and Doab belt has maximum area of good quality water.

Marginal Quality Ground Waters:

Marginal Quality Ground Waters occupy 37% area of the state. Water under this category is saline, sodic or both. The extent of marginal quality ground waters is highest in the south-western zone.

Poor Quality Ground Water:

This category occupies nearly 6% area of the state. The continuous use of poor quality water renders the soils unproductive or barren over a period of time. These waters are unsuitable for irrigation due to high EC or high RSC or both. The poor quality waters are present in S-W zone and Satluj-Ghaggar plain.

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