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India being concerned about the impacts of climate change signed the UNFCCC as early as in June 1992 and ratified it in November 1993. The Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF) is the nodal agency for climate change issues in India. India reported its 1st National communication to UNFCCC secretariat in 2004 and the 2nd National communication was submitted in May 2012.

In 2008  the Government of India  released its policy on climate change enshrined in its National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) having 8 missions - (i) National Solar Mission, (ii) National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency, (iii) National Mission on Sustainable Habitat, (iv) National Water Mission, (v) National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem, (vi) National Mission for a Green India, (vii) National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture, and (viii) National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change. Now the Missions are live, and some of them have launched different programmes and schemes to achieve their objectives.

The National government also has undertaken a voluntary domestic commitment for reducing its emission intensity of GDP by 20-25% by 2020 with respect to 2005, which it hopes to achieve through the missions that are focused on mitigation.

Impacts of climate change manifest locally. Also the point sources of emissions that can be targeted to achieve the domestic goals of reducing emission intensities are spread all across the country in different states. The Indian government through the MoEF has, therefore, directed each state to identify their Climate Change concerns and prepare an Action Plan to combat the local impacts and devise mitigation strategies, taking advantage of the various Missions of the NAPCC. The strategies thus being formulated as a part of the State Action Plan on Climate Change (SAPCC) are as per the state specific circumstances. The SAPCC of every state is required to formulate and prioritize financeable strategies and actions that can be made operational.

The SAPCC is the first document of its type, whereby the climate change concerns of the state have been identified and strategies developed for adaptation. However, as science progresses and knowledge expands, the strategies identified in this document will certainly need to evolve.   Therefore, it is essential that this document undergoes review periodically to accommodate the cost effective traditional as well as new and emerging science and technological interventions for adaptation and mitigation in the future.

 References