About Punjab
Agriculture
Air
Biodiversity
Climate Change
Database on Maps
Demography
Disaster
Environmental Conventions
Energy
Forest Resource
Graph Gallery
Land
Policy and Legislations
Solid Waste
Static database
Water

 

Parasitoids

                                 Population/ 5 plants ( mean ± S.D)

 

   1975

       1985

    1995

Predatory bugs

1.07 ± 0.68

0.81 ± 0.74 ( 24.29)

0.22 ± 0.42( 79.43)

Chrysoperla  sp.

1.19 ± 1.08

0.96 ± 0.98 (19.32)

0.56 ± 0.64 (52.94)

Coccinellids

1.04 ± 0.96

0.81 ± 0.74( 22.11)

0.33 ± 0.48 (68.26)

Spiders

1.78 ± 1.58

1.41 ± 0.89( 20.78)

0.52 ± 0.58 (70.78)

Misc.

0.41 ± 0.64

0.37 ± 0.56 ( 9.75)

0.26 ± 0.53 (36.58)

Total

5.46 ± 2.80

4.41 ± 1.93 ( 19.23)

1.07 ± 1.03( 68.36)

*Figures in parenthesis are reduction in population over base year


Source: Dhawan A.K., Major pests of cotton and their integrated management, Updadhyay R.K, Mukerji K.G., Rajak (eds), IPM system in agriculture vol. 6 : cash crops, Aditya Books private limited, New Delhi. pp. 165-225