1. Constitution of Punjab Biodiversity Board (PBB): Taking cognizance of the provisions of the Biological Diversity Act, 2002, and to deal with the management of biological resources of the State, Govt. of Punjab established Punjab Biodiversity Board as a statutory body u/s 22 of Biological Diversity Act, 2002 in 2004. The main objectives of the Board are to promote conservation & sustainable use of biological resources and to ensure fair and equitable sharing of benefit arising out of commercial utilization of biological resources in the state. Board is functioning from the O/o Punjab State Council for Science & Technology, Chandigarh under the administrative control of Department of Science, Technology & Environment, Govt. of Punjab.  Further, Govt. of Punjab vide notification no. G.S.R.78/C.A.18/2003/S.63/2016 Dated 11 Nov. 2016 notified Punjab Biological Diversity Rules in 2016. The major mandate of the Board is as under:

  • Advise the State Govt. and provide technical assistance on matters related to conservation & sustainable utilization of biological resources.
  • Facilitate setting up of Biodiversity Management Committees (BMCs) and preparation of People’s Biodiversity Registers (PBRs) at District/Block/Village and ULBs level.
  • Regulate access to biological resources for commercial utilization.
  • Identify and take steps to promote conservation of ‘Biodiversity Heritage Sites’ and rehabilitate threatened flora and fauna of the State.
  • Create awareness & undertake capacity building activities on biodiversity related issues.

2. Constitution of BMCs and Preparation of PBRs: As per Section 41 of the Biological Diversity Act, 2002 and Rule 22 of the Biological Diversity Rules, 2004, every Local Body (District, Block, Village and ULB) is required to constitute Biodiversity Management Committee (BMC) for promoting conservation and sustainable use of biological resources and preparation of People's Biodiversity Registers (PBRs) for the documentation of local flora & fauna and associated Traditional Knowledge within its jurisdiction.

PBB facilitated 100% constitution of BMCs and preparation of PBRs throughout the State as under:


BMCs Constituted

PBRs Prepared













Source: Punjab Biodiversity Board, 2021

3. Notified Threatened Flora and Fauna of Punjab: As per the Section 38 of the Biological Diversity Act, 2002, Government of India, in consultation with the concerned State Govt. may from time to time notify any species which is on the verge of extinction or likely to become extinct in the near future as a Threatened Species.

Ministry of Environment, Forests & Climate Change, in exercise of its power by Section 38 of Biological Diversity Act, 2002 has notified 13 Species (8 floral and 5 faunal) which are on the verge of extinction as Threatened Species of Punjab. The collection of such species of plants and animals shall be prohibited, except with the prior approval of the PBB only for the purposes mentioned below:

  • Scientific research, herbarium and museum of scientific & academic institutions,
  • Propagation and any other scientific investigation.

List of Notified Threatened Species of Punjab

Threatened Floral Species


Tecomella undulata (Sm.) Seem (Rohida)


Withania coagulans (Stocks) Dunal (Punir dodi)


Anogeissus sericea  Brandis var. nummularia King ex Duthie (Indrokh)


Alysicarpus bupleuurifolius (L.) DC var. hybridus DC (Sweet Alyce Clover, Chauli)


Hibiscus hoshiarpurensis T.K. Paul & M.P. Nayar


Ceropegia bulbosa Roxb. Var. lushii (J. Graham) Hook.f [= Ceropegia lushii (J. Graham)](Hedulo)


Ophioglossum gramineum Willd (Adder's-tongue)


Ophioglossum polyphyllum A. Braun ex. Seub (Large adders tongue)

Threatened Faunal Species


Plantista gangetica ssp minor (Indus River Dolphin)


Gyps bengalensis Gmelin, 1788 (White-rumped vulture)


Grus antigone Linnaeus, 1758 (Sarus Crane)


Python molurus Linnaeus, 1758 (Indian Rock Python)


Pangshura tecta Gray1830 (Indian Roofed Turtle)

4. State Symbols: Govt. of Punjab has notified the following Flora & Fauna as State Symbols to create awareness and promote their conservation:

State Symbols

Scientific Name

Vernacular Name

State Tree

Dalbergia sissoo

Tahli/ Shisham

State Animal

Antelope cervicapra L.

Kala Hiran /Black Buck

State Bird

Accipiter gentilis

Baaz/ Northern gowshak

State Aquatic Animal

Platanista gangetica minor

Indus River Dolphin

5. Identification of Biodiversity Rich Areas (Potential Biodiversity Heritage Sites): Punjab Biodiversity Board has been making consistent efforts for identification of biodiversity rich sites located outside Protected Area Network of the State to promote their conservation & management as Biodiversity Heritage Sites (BHSs) u/s 37 of the Biological Diversity Act, 2002. BHSs are well defined areas that are unique ecologically fragile ecosystems-terrestrial, freshwater or marine having rich biodiversity comprising of any one or more of the components such as; species richness, high endemism, presence of rare, endemic and threatened species, keystone species, species of evolutionary significance, wild ancestors of domestic/cultivated species or land races or their varieties, past pre-eminence of biological components represented by fossil beds and having cultural or aesthetic values and are important for the maintenance of cultural diversity, with or without a long history of human association with them. (Source: NBA, India)

Significance and objectives of Biodiversity Heritage Sites:

To strengthen the biodiversity conservation in traditionally managed areas and to stem the rapid loss of biodiversity in intensively managed areas, such areas need special attention. To have a BHS in or around a community should be a matter of pride and honour to such community and this virtuous act of community shall work as an example to the entire nation apart from ensuring availability of the resources to their own future generation. It is necessary to instil and nurture conservation ethics in all sections of the society. The creation of BHS will ensure bringing home these values in the society and thereby put an end to over exploitation of natural resources and avoid environmental degradation. The creation of BHS shall not put any restriction on the prevailing practices and usages of the local communities, other than those voluntarily decided by them. The purpose is to enhance the quality of life of the local communities through this conservation measure.

PBB in consultation with concerned local bodies has identified the following biodiversity rich outside the protected area network:

  • Kaya Kalp Vriksh village Cholti Kheri, District Fatehgarh Sahib : The Kaya Kalp Vriksh a great banyan tree (Ficus bengalensis) located at village Cholti Kheri, Block Khera, District Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab, India. The sprawling canopy of the tree spreads to 2 acres approx. (earlier 3 to 4 acres) on private land and resembles a small forest as its many aerial roots have now become stems. 

According to local information, great banyan is a few hundred years old and known as ‘Kaya Kalp Vriksh`(transformation). The local belief is that nobody can stop the relentless spread of the tree. As the tree is surrounded by private land, the adjoining land owners not dare to cut any branch which may grow and cover their land. It is believed that any person in the past who tried to stop the spread of the tree had to face grave misfortunes. The usage of waste wood or fallen leaves of the tree is also considered equally unpropitious. People of the surrounding villages believe that the tree has unique healing and medicinal power, therefore, people suffering from different ailments visit this place to spend some time under its shade in order to get cured. A fair is organized by local people annually under its shade on 15th February to worship the divine powers of Great Banyan of Punjab.

The tree has created its own unique eco system in the area as it supports large number of birds such as mayna, peacock, parrot, crow, owl, egret, etc and many insect species.  The site has a tourism and heritage potential as it attracts many visitors including people from nearby areas, students' groups, tourists and the spiritually inclined. Though great banyan tree continues to grow undisturbed, however, it needs to be conserved from the vagaries of time, weather and human behaviour. The under canopy of tree is habitat to many other floral species such as  Capparis decidua, Calatropis procera, Ziziphus nummularia, Leptadenia pyrotechnica Dalbergia sissoo, Acacia nilotica ssp. indica, Ficus religiosa, Euphorbia nivulia, Salvadora oleoides, Phoenix sylvestris, Argemone mexicana, Ageratum conyzoides, Desmostachya bipinnate, Cassia tora, Cleome viscosa, Crotolaria sp., Euphorbia hirta, Croton bonplandianum, Leucas sp., Spergularia sp., Vicia sp., Lantana camara, Parthenium hysterophorus.

  • Inami Baag, District Hoshiarpur: A mango orchard (Inami Baag) at Village Bassi Umar Khan, District Hoshiarpur with large diversity of native mango species. The site is spread over an area of 10 acres on private land. The site comprises 165 trees of (29 native elite varieties/ land races) of mango.  

Some interesting mango strains observed in the sites are locally known as Anda Dusehree, Laddu Amb, Gola Ghassipur,  Ber Amb, Choe Sindhuri, Ghassipur di Chhalli, Sindhuri Chusa, Anami Chhalli, Mahantan di Laltain, Hariana Kanghi, Jogiya Chhalli, etc.

These native mango varieties/land races need to be conserved for the benefit of posterity as well as carrying out selection of desirable traits for evolving new varieties of mangoes.

  • Chatpatt Bani, Village Kataru Chak, District Pathankot: A sacred grove — ‘Charpat Bani’, 30 acres of biodiversity rich dense forest from where no one even takes a twig home, is believed to be the seat of a local deity called Charpat Yogi. On the edge of the grove is a temple dedicated to Yogi. 

As per belief of locals, the forest appeared overnight so its name is name ‘Chatpat’ comes from ‘Jhatpat’ (quickly). The old tale is that the trees would walk down the mountains at night when people would be asleep but one day a woman saw them before dawn and they all stopped there. The word ‘Bani’ comes from ‘Vani’ (forest). The site has abundance population of Putranjiva roxburghii (Puttar Datta), Ficus racemose (Gular) trees, murraya species and many other native herbs & shrubs. The grove also acts as a colony of giant bats, cobras and many other micro-organisms.  

Another popular story is that Charpat Yogi was meditating in the fields when farmers came to plough the land. When Yogi did not move, they went ahead with their work. Yogi was covered with dust and as he fell down, his elbow dug into the ground and a spring erupted. Farmers saw it as a miracle and stopped ploughing and bowed to the sacred land. The sacred natural water springs still exists and pass through the site. 

  • The Sacred Grove at Tibba & Taparia, District Roopnagar: The site is known by locals as ‘Dargah Peer Baba Majnu Shah Ji’, is situated on the bank of river Sutlej at Village Tibba & Taparia, District Roopnagar. As informed by the locals, the site is around 300 years old and is believed that Peer Baba Majnu Shah Ji having spiritual powers worshiped at the site for 200 years. He used to eat only fruit of Ficus racemosa (Gular). The site is un-disturbed and being preserved by the locals as sacred grove and a Dargah of Peer Baba Majnu Shah Ji has been constructed by the Panchayat of Village Tibba & Taparia. A 200 years old stone associated with the Peer Baba Majnu Shah Ji is also kept in the Dargah. One room and a verandha have also been constructed for the caretaker of the Shrine. An Annual Fair is being organized at the site on 1st Thursday of Jeth month (May) to worship the divine powers of Peer Baba Majnu Shah Ji.

The site is spread in pristine and calm area of 7 acres approximate of Panchayat Land consisting naturally occurring cluster of lush green trees and shrubs. The local belief is that any harm to any tree of the area could lead to misfortune to the individual. Therefore, nobody dares to use any part of the trees. Local people neither use fallen dead wood/dried leaves nor graze cattle within the area due to associated religious beliefs. The local fishing contractor has also voluntarily stopped fishing in the adjoining stretch of the river Sutlej. 

The common flora of the site comprises of Dalbergia sisso, Acacia nilotica, Cordia dictoma, Ficus benghalensis, Phoenix sylvestlis, Prosopis cineraria (single tree), Aegle marmelos, Acacia modesta, Morus alba, Terminalia bellirica, Azadirachta indica, Acacia catechu, Ficus racemosa, Lawsonia inermis, Syzygium cumini, Mangifera indica, Carica papaya, Terminalia chebula, Ziziphus jujube, Psidium guajava, Capparis decidua (Della).

The common fauna of the site comprises Monkey, Wild Boar, Phython, Cobra, Hare, Owl, Peafowl, Nilgai, Mongoose, Indian Squirrel, Indian Pangolin, Rats, Garden lizard, Red Jungle Fowl, House Sparrow, Barking Deer, Fruit Bats, Red Munia, etc. and many insects, arthropods, millipedes and nematodes.

There is vigorous growth of Arundo donax (Narha) and Phragmites Karka (Nari) on the stretch of the site adjoining river Sutlej. 

  • Potential Biodiversity Heritage Site in Village Kartoli, District Hoshiarpur: The site is known by locals as ‘Baba Sukhia Ji’. It is situated at Village Kartoli, District Hoshiarpur. Around 200-250 years old site, it is believed by locals that Sidh Baba Sukhia Ji having spiritual powers worshiped below a giant Banyan tree at this site and the village was cursed by Sidh Baba Sukhia due to disgraceful behaviour of a specific community to him. This village was again re-habitated when the people began to worship this place.

The site is presently being preserved by the local residents as sacred grove and a Temple of Sidh Baba Sukhia Ji has been constructed by the Panchayat of Village Kartoli. An Annual Fair is being organized at the site during the months of April (14 April) and September (17 September) by the local community.

The site is spread in approximate 3-4 acres land and has rich floral and faunal diversity and is inhabited by some rare, important medicinal and timber plant species like Diospyros tomentosa, Holopetela integrifolia, Bombax ceiba, Carrisa spinarum, Flacourtia indica, Aegle marmelos, Bauhinia variegate, Mallotus philippensis, Murraya koenigii, Adhatoda vasica etc.

The common fauna of the site comprises Monkey, Wild Boar, Phython, Cobra, Hare, Owl, Peafowl, Mongoose, Indian Squirrel, Indian Pangolin, Rats, Garden lizard, Red Jungle Fowl, House Sparrow, Fruit Bats, Red Munia, etc. and many insects, arthropods, millipedes and nematodes. 

6. Major Publications
English Punjabi