A place or type of site where an organism or population or community naturally occurs.

Habitat degradation

The diminishment of habitat quality, which results in a reduced ability to support flora and fauna species. Human activities leading to habitat degradation include polluting activities and the introduction of invasive species.

Habitat degradation

The diminishment of habitat quality, which results in a reduced ability to support flora and fauna species. Human activities leading to habitat degradation include polluting activities and the introduction of invasive species.

Habitat fragmentation

Fragmentation of habitats occur when a continuous has become divided into separate, often isolated small patches interspersed with other habitats. Habitat fragmentation stems from geological processes that slowly alter the lay out of the physical environment or human activities such as land clearing, housing, urban development and construction of roads or other infrastructure. Fragmentation of habitats is expected to lead to losses of species diversity in the longer term.

Habitat loss

The outcome of a process of land use change in which a ‘natural’; habitat-type is removed and replaced by another habitat-type, such as converting natural areas to production sites. In such process, flora and fauna species that previously used the site are displaced or destroyed. Generally this results in a reduction of biodiversity.

Happy Seeder

This technology combines stubbles, mulching and seed drilling functions in one machine. Apart from benefits like proper mulching of paddy residue instead of burning, timely sowing, reducing runoff, soil erosion, lesser deep percolation and improving soil health by incorporating plant nutrients



Whole forage plants which are cut and dried for animal feed.



Forage ensiled at relatively low moisture content (usually 40 to 50 %).

Hazardous waste

Waste that poses a risk to human health or the environment and needs to be handled and disposed of carefully. Examples include oil-based paints, car batteries, weed killers, bleach and waste electrical and electronic devices.


The hemolymph-filled space or body cavity of some invertebrates.


The oxygen-carrying pigment in red blood cells.


The fluid that is circulated through the body of an animal with an open circulatory system.


A trait in which the blood lacks a protein that is essential for clotting.


Portal circulation the system of blood movement through the digestive tract and liver.


A flowering, vascular seed plant that lacks a woody stem; a plant part used to add flavor to food.

Herbaceous Plant

An annual plant that is nonwoody.


Any agent used to control weeds and unwanted plants


A consumer that eats primary producers.


Macroorganisms that eat plants. Includes insect and beetle larva, grub, mouse, slug, snail, termite, woodchuck.


The transmission of traits from parents to their offspring.


Literally, "eats others." An organism that must consume other organisms to fuel its metabolism. Animals, including humans, are heterotrophs. Heterotrophic, adj.


The colon and rectum of some invertebrates.


Joint allows movement back and forth like a hinged door, as in the elbow.


A kind of cytokine that causes an inflammatory response to an injury resulting in redness, swelling, warmth, and pain.


A protein molecule that DNA wraps around during chromosome formation.


The part of an algal thallus that anchors it to a substrate.


A specific DNA sequence within a homeotic gene that regulates patterns of development.


The stable internal conditions of a living thing.

Homeotic Gene

A gene that controls the development of a specific adult structure.


A subgroup of primates that includes modern humans and their bipedal ancestors.


Features similar features that originated in a shared ancestor.

Homologous Chromosome

One of a pair of morphologically similar chromosomes.


A phenomenon in which all spores look alike and produce similar gametophytes.


Referring to a gene pair in which the two alleles code for the same trait.


A parasitic roundworm that feeds on its host’s blood by cutting into the intestinal wall.


A chemical secreted by an endocrine gland that specifically influences the activity of distant cells.


The branch of agricultural science which deals with production , utilization and improvement of fruits, vegetables, flowers or ornamental plants


An area on earth with an unusual concentration of species, many of which are often endemic to the area.

Human chorionic gonadotropin

A hormone secreted by the placenta that stimulates the corpus luteum.

Human Genome Project

Worldwide scientific collaboration to determine the nucleotide sequence of the entire human genome.

Human immunodeficiency virus

The virus that causes AIDS.

Humoral immune response

An arm of the immune response that involves mainly B cells and antibodies.

Huntington’s disease

A human genetic disorder caused by a dominant allele resulting in involuntary movements, mental deterioration, and eventual death.

Hydrogen Bond

A weak chemical bond between the hydrogen atom in one molecule and a negatively-charged region of another molecule.

Hydrologic cycle

Biogeochemical cycle that collects, purifies, and distributes the earth's fixed supply of water, from the environment to living organisms and then back to the environment.


The splitting of a molecule through reaction with water.


Referring to the molecular attraction to water.


Referring to the molecular repulsion of water.


The earth's liquid water (oceans, lakes other bodies of surface water, and underground water), the earth's frozen water (polar ice caps, floating ice caps, and ice in soil known as permafrost), and small amounts of water vapor in the atmosphere.


High blood pressure


Overproduction of thyroid hormones.


Describing a solution whose solute concentration is higher than that inside a cell.


The vegetative filament of a fungus.


A stemlike area in plants between the cotyledons and radicle


Overproduction of insulin.


A statement that can be tested experimentally.


Thyroid hormone deficiency.


Describing a solution whose solute concentration is lower than that inside a cell.