Solid waste is the discarded or left over or unusable solid material arising from human and animal activities in residential, agricultural, industrial or commercial areas. The solid waste generation has increased over the years due to increase in population, rapid industrialization and change in lifestyle, etc.

In India, 147,613 metric tonnes (MT) of solid waste is generated per day, (“Swachhata Sandesh Newsletter”, January 2020, Ministry of Housing & Urban Affairs, Government of India). The per capita waste generation is 450 grams per day and has increased at a rate of 1.3 percent per annum. It is estimated that urban India will generate 4,50,132 tonnes per day (TPD) by 2031; and 11,95,000 TPD by 2050. (Report by the “Task Force on Waste to Energy,” under the Planning Commission).

In Punjab, a total of 710959.645 (MT) Municipal Solid Waste, 67363.427 (MT) of Hazardous waste and 6227.205 (MT) of Bio-Medical waste was generated during 2019-20 (PPCB as cited in Statistical Abstract 2020).

The composition of solid waste varies from place to place depending on factors like lifestyle and standard of living (urban/ rural habitat), journal consumer pattern, type of industry, local waste management practices, level of technology enhancement etc. The various types of waste generated from different sources are given in Table below:

Major Sources of Solid Waste

Source of Waste

Waste Generated


Food waste, plastics, paper, glass, leather, cardboard, metals, yard wastes, ashes, tires, batteries, old mattresses

Industrial & Commercial

Packaging, ashes, chemicals, cans, plastics, metal parts ,Thin & thick plastics, food waste, metals, paper, glass wood, cardboard materials


Wood, paper, metals, cardboard materials, electronics

Construction and Demolition

Steel materials, concrete, wood, plastics, rubber, copper wires, dirt and glass


Agricultural wastes, spoiled food, pesticide containers

Health Care Facilities

Syringes, bandages, used gloves, masks, catheter, urine bags, drugs, paper, plastics, food wastes, sanitary napkins and diapers, chemicals

Solid Waste Management

Solid Waste Management is defined as the discipline associated with control of generation, storage, collection, transport or transfer, processing and disposal of solid waste materials in a way that best address the range of public health, conservation, economics, aesthetic engineering and other environmental considerations. Solid waste management includes planning, administrative, financial, engineering and legal functions in the process of solving problems arising from waste materials. The following initiatives have been taken for Solid Waste Management in India and within the state:

  • Solid Waste Management Rules, 2016: For efficient & effective management of solid waste, Government of India has formulated following six types of Solid Waste Management Rules, 2016 for scientific solid waste management of any city or State:

  1. Municipal Solid Waste Management Rules 2016
  2. Plastic Waste Management Rules 2016
  3. Electronic Waste Management Rules 2016
  4. Bio-Medical Waste Management Rules 2016
  5. Construction & Demolition Waste Management Rules 2016
  6. Hazardous Waste Management Rules 2016

  • Punjab Solid Waste Management Policy 2018: To achieve the goal of Scientific solid waste management, Department of local Govt, Punjab has notified the Punjab Solid Waste Management Policy 2018 under rule 11(1) of Solid Waste Management Rules, 2016 notified by Ministry of Environment & Forest, Govt. of India.

    Punjab SWM Model Bye-Laws 2020 Notified: Under the provision of Section 399(2) & Section 201(1) of Punjab Muncipal Corporation Act 1976, The Department of Local Govt. vide notification dated 11.8.2020 has notified “The Punjab Solid Waste Management & Cleanliness & Sanitation Bylaws 2020”. 

  • Technical Guidelines for Solid Waste Management: CPCB after consulting various stakeholders has prepared the Guideline documents for Scientific Management of following types of solid wastes in light of the provisions of Solid Waste Management Rules 2016.    

              1. Municipal Solid Waste Management 

      2. Plastic Waste Management 

  Segregation, Collection and Disposal of Plastic Waste, 2017

  Disposal of Non-recyclable Fraction (Multi-layered) Plastic Waste, 2018

      3. E –waste Management

 Environmentally Sound Management of Electronic Waste, 2008

      4Bio-Medical Waste Management 

Handling, Treatment & Disposal of waste generated during treatment, diagnostics and quarantine of COVID-19 patients, 2020

Management of Healthcare Waste in Health Care Facilities, 2016

Environmentally Sound Management of Mercury Waste Generated from Health Care Facilities, 2012

      5. Construction & Demolition Waste Management

Environmental Management of Construction & Demolition (C & D) wastes, 2017

Dust mitigation measures in handling Construction material and C&D wastes, 2017

      6. Hazardous Waste Management 

SOP for disposal of BMW including pandemic medical waste through incineration in common hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal facility, 2021

Framework on Identification of Materials Generated from Industrial Processes as Wastes or By-products, 2020

Guidance Document for Conducting Environmental Audit of Common/Captive Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facilities (TSDFs), 2021