Biodiversity is the variety of different types of life found on earth.  It includes diversity at three levels: Genetic Diversity (within species), Species Diversity (between species) and ecosystem diversity (between ecosystems). This diversity of living creatures forms a support system which has been used by each civilization for its growth and development. As per Convention on Biological Diversity, Biodiversity is the variability among living organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems.

It is critical to our survival and economic prosperity and provides the basic goods and services for human society to exist and secure economic and social development. Biological resources are essential for maintaining the basic life processes as they not only provide food, medicine and products of commercial and non-commercial use, but also provide various environmental services.

In response to actions required to taken up under United Nation’s Convention on Biological Diversity, Govt. of India enacted the Biological Diversity Act in 2002. Subsequently, Biological Diversity Rules were notified in 2004 to spell out procedures and mechanisms for the implementation of the Biological Diversity Act, 2002 throughout the nation. India is a forerunner in bringing out such umbrella legislations with the objective of protecting the country’s rich biodiversity & associated Traditional Knowledge.

The Biological Diversity Act, 2002 is implemented through a three-tier institutional mechanism:

  • National Biodiversity Authority (NBA), Chennai at National Level
  • State Biodiversity Boards (SBBs), at State Level
  • Biodiversity Management Committees (District, Block, Village & Urban Local Bodies)  at local Level

Biodiversity Profile of Punjab

·        Punjab is predominantly an agrarian state having:

  • dominant cropland ecosystem with 84 % area under agriculture
  • 6.12 % of its total geographic area under  forest (3.67 %) and tree cover (2.45 %) (Source: India State of Forest Report, 2019)
  • six wetlands (Harike Lake, Ropar Lake, Kanjli Lake, Keshopur Miani Community Reserve, Nangal Wildlife Sanctuary and Beas Conservation Reserve) of International importance (Ramsar sites)
  • large number of flora and fauna recorded from forests, agricultural areas & wetlands

  • rich crop and domesticated animal diversity
  • Shivalik area comprising of sub-mountainous zone and undulating land below the hills in the districts of Gurdaspur, Hoshiarpur, Pathankot, S.B.S Nagar and Ropar
  • protected areas as under:

Protected Area

Total Number

Wild life Sanctuaries  


Ramsar Sites


Botanical Parks


Zoological Parks


Deer Park


Community Reserves


Source: Statistical Abstract of Punjab, 2020