About Punjab

Punjab, located in the north west of India, is one of the smallest and prosperous states of India.  It occupies only 1.54% ( 50, 362 sq. km) of the Total Geographical Area of India  extending  from 29.30° North to 32.32° North latitude and 73.55° East to 76.50° East longitude. It is a part of Indo- Gangetic plains formed due to alluvial deposits by rivers and tributaries. Historically, the five rivers Sutlej, Beas, Ravi, Chenab and Jhelum gave it its name 'punj-ab' or the 'land of five waters'.

The Indian Punjab was divided in 1966 with the formation of the new states of Haryana and Himachal Pradesh. Thus the present Punjab came into existence on November 1, 1966. After the state's partition first in 1947, and subsequently its re-organization in 1966, the State has been left with only three rivers namely Beas, Sutlej and Ravi. These three rivers divide the state into three regions: Majha, Doaba and Malwa.

The state has done remarkably well in the filed of agriculture and is now  laying emphasis on industrial growth. The state also leads the nation in infrastructural development and having strong road, railway  and  communication network. However, over intensification of agriculture over the years along with industrialization, economic and infrastructural development has lead to degradation  and over exploitation  of natural resources of the state especially water, land and biodiversity. Hence, for maintaining the state’s economic prosperity in future, concerted efforts would be required to protect the environment and promote sustainable use of natural resources.

Basic Statistics of Punjab


50,362 sq. km.

Rural Area

48265 sq. km.

Urban Area

2097 sq. km.


5 (No.)


22 (No.)


91 (No.)


150 (No.)


143 (No.)


74 (No.)

Inhabited Villages

1258 (No.)

Total Population

277.43 Lakh

Zila Parishads

22 (No.)

Municipal Committees

166 (No.)

Improvement Trusts

28 (No.)

Average Rainfall

493 millimeter

Net Area Sown

4125 hectare

Cropping Intensity

189 %

Net Area Irrigated by :


          -       Govt. Canals

1176 ‘000 hectare

          -       Private Canals

-      ‘000 hectare

          -       Wells/Tubewells

2948 ‘000 hectare

Gross Area Irrigated

7767 ‘000 hectare

Area under Forests

2442 sq. km.

Source:Statistical Abstract of Punjab, 2018