Strengthening the development dimensions in the post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework

The post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF) will be a major milestone in global agreements on biodiversity conservation, setting international ambition for the next decade. This guide seeks to support Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) who wish to see strengthened provisions for human development in the draft post-2020 GBF. It will help negotiators to develop arguments for enhancing the contributions of biodiversity to human development. The final section offers ideas for the language that could be used to strengthen current provisions for human development.

This is the second in a series of guides published by IIED that will support CBD negotiators to influence key aspects of the post-2020 GBF where it aligns to their national interests.

Environmental Risk Outlook 2021

Asian cities face the greatest risk from environmental issues including air pollution and natural disasters, according to a report by research firm Verisk Maplecroft. Out of 100 most vulnerable cities, 99 are in Asia, including 37 in China and 43 in India. Globally, 1.5 billion people live in 414 cities that are at high risk from pollution, water shortages, extreme heat, natural hazards and vulnerable to climate change.

Measuring food safety: Indicators to achieve 9 sustainable development goals (SDGs)

Universal access to safe food is a key requirement for the 2030 Agenda for the Sustainable Development Goals and yet an estimated 600 million people each year fall sick from eating unsafe food and 420 000 of them die. Safe food is also critical for economic development and the international food trade. Setting and measuring food security indicators have significantly contributed to improving and communicating progress in achieving food security. Considering their success, several countries in Asia and the Pacific region have asked the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) to provide guidance on the development of food safety indicators. Following a comprehensive review and a technical consultation on the topic, a pilot project was developed in four countries to establish food safety indicators that fit their country contexts and objectives. The pilot project confirmed the usefulness of food safety indicators in strengthening national food control systems. In contrast to other types of indicators, food safety indicators were not found to be suitable for benchmarking capacities among countries. The regional guide to develop food safety indicators aims to provide countries with technical advice to develop national food safety indicators that serve country-specific objectives. By reading the guide, food safety competent authorities will be equipped with instruments and experience based tips to effectively develop and use food safety indicators, and to tailor them to fit their countries’ contexts.

The Economics of Biodiversity: The Dasgupta Review 

The UK Government has published The Economics of Biodiversity: The Dasgupta Review. This is an independent, global review on the Economics of Biodiversity led by Professor Sir Partha Dasgupta (Frank Ramsey Professor Emeritus, University of Cambridge). The Review was commissioned in 2019 by HM Treasury and has been supported by an Advisory Panel drawn from public policy, science, economics, finance and business.

The Review calls for changes in how we think, act and measure economic success to protect and enhance our prosperity and the natural world. Grounded in a deep understanding of ecosystem processes and how they are affected by economic activity, the new framework presented by the Review sets out how we should account for Nature in economics and decision-making.

Third National Wildlife Action Plan 2017-31

India unveiled the third National Wildlife Action Plan for 2017-2031 spelling out the future road map for wildlife conservation. The third action plan comes after the first plan in 1983 and second from 2002 till 2016. The third National Wildlife Action Plan is unique as this is the first time India has recognized the concerns relating to climate change impact on wildlife and stressed on integrating actions that need to be taken for its mitigation and adaptation into wildlife management planning processes.

highlights the role of energy efficiency in recent flattering of Global Green House Emissions.

Energy Efficiency 2017

Global energy systems have great impacts of Energy Efficiency.This report highlights the role of energy efficiency in recent flattering of Global Green House Emissions. The recent acceleration in global energy efficiency gains risks slowing down if governments do not maintain their focus on implementing new efficiency policies, according to a new report by the International Energy Agency. Global energy intensity,  the energy used per unit of gross domestic product fell by 1.8% in 2016, a sign the global economy generated more value from its energy, according to the IEA’s Energy Efficiency 2017 report. Improvement seen in 2016 confirms the strong progress seen since the start of the decade. But this progress masks some concerning policy trends. While efficiency codes and standards grew to cover about 32% of global energy use in 2016, nearly all of the increase in coverage came from existing policies and over two-thirds of global energy use is still not covered. The IEA’s Efficiency Policy Progress Index also reveals that the strength of policies increased at their slowest rate in recent years and rates of progress vary significantly across countries. seen since the 1990s.It is hoped that this report will help people understand energy efficiency trends, policies and the stronger actions for the same.

Attachment: Energy Efficiency 2017


Atlas of Sustainable Development Goals 2017: from World Development Indicators


The Atlas of Sustainable Development Goals 2017 uses maps, charts and analysis to illustrate, trends, challenges and measurement issues related to each of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals. The Atlas primarily draws on World Development Indicators (WDI) - the World Bank's compilation of internationally comparable statistics about global development and the quality of people's lives Given the breadth and scope of the SDGs, the editors have been selective, emphasizing issues considered important by experts in the World Bank's Global Practices and Cross Cutting Solution Areas. Nevertheless, The Atlas aims to reflect the breadth of the Goals themselves and presents national and regional trends and snapshots of progress towards the UN's seventeen Sustainable Development Goals: poverty, hunger, health, education, gender, water, energy, jobs, infrastructure, inequalities, cities, consumption, climate, oceans, the environment, peace, institutions, and partnerships. Between 1990 and 2013, nearly one billion people were raised out of extreme poverty. Its elimination is now a realistic prospect, although this will require both sustained growth and reduced inequality.

Attachment:Atlas of Sustainable Development Goals 2017


State of the world's plants 2016


The spread of pests and pathogens that damage plant life could cost global agriculture $540 billion a year, according to this report released by the Royal Botanic Gardens in London. An increase in international trade and travel had left flora facing rising threats from invasive pests and pathogens, and called for greater biosecurity measures.

This is the frst document to collate current knowledge on the state of the world’s plants. It represents a status report on our knowledge of global vegetation as it stands in 2016, including a synthesis of existing information about vascular plants.

Attachment:State of the world's plants 2016


Energy and air pollution: World Energy Outlook Special Report 2016


This report released by the International Energy Agency says air pollution has become a major public health crisis leading to around 6.5 million deaths each year, with “many of its root causes and cures” found in the energy industry. 

Around 6.5 million premature deaths each year can be attributed to air pollution. Energy production and use are by far the largest man-made sources of air pollutants. Technologies to tackle air pollution are well known. Clean air is vital for good health. Yet despite growing recognition of this imperative, the problem of air pollution is far from solved in many countries, and the global health impacts risk intensifying in the decades to come. The scale of the public health crisis caused by air pollution and the importance of the energy sector to its resolution are the reasons why the IEA is focusing on this critical topic for the first time. Based on new data for pollutant emissions in 2015 and projections to 2040, this special report, the latest in the World Energy Outlook series, provides a global outlook for energy and air pollution as well as detailed profiles of key countries and regions: the United States, Mexico, the European Union, China, India, Southeast Asia and Africa. In a Clean Air Scenario, the report proposes a pragmatic and attainable strategy to reconcile the world’s energy requirements with its need for cleaner air. Alongside the multiple benefits to human health, this strategy shows that resolving the world’s air pollution problem can go hand-in-hand with progress towards other environmental and development goals.

Attachment:Energy and air pollution: World Energy Outlook Special Report 2016


Adaptation Gap Report, 2014. UNEP


The Gap Reports assess  the gap between ambition and reality in relation to how nations are faring towards bringing emissions down to the levels required by 2020 to have a likely chance to keep global average temperature rise this century under 2° Celsius. This first Adaptation Gap report provides an equally sobering assessment of the gap between adaptation needs and reality, based on preliminary thinking on how baselines, future goals or targets, and gaps between them might be defined for climate change adaptation. The report focuses on gaps in developing countries in three important areas: finance, technology and knowledge.

Attachment:Adaptation Gap Report, 2014


The Emissions Gap Report 2015


The Emissions Gap Report offers an independent assessment of the mitigation contributions from the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC) committed to by 1 October 2015, by the 146 countries that account for around 90 per cent of global emissions. It compares the 2030 emission levels that would result from these commitments with what science tells us would keep average temperature increases on track to stay below 2°C by the end of the century; it provides data for an aspirational target of keeping that increase below 1.5°C; and it evaluates the INDCs in relation to progress on the 2020 pledges made in Cancun. The Report highlights the importance of Global Paris agreement as a stepping stone towards closing the emissions gap and creating a more inclusive and sustainable future for both the developed and the developing world.

Attachment:The Emissions Gap Report.pdf


Narrowing the Emissions Gap: Contributions from renewable energy and energy efficiency activities

The Narrowing the Emissions Gap (NEG) Report of the Coalition ( 1 Gigaton Coalition, initiated by the Government of Norway and coordinated by the United Nations Environment Programme) is a first step to measure and report the renewable energy and energy efficiency programmes contributing to narrowing the 2020 emissions gap in various sectors. This report comes in the critical window between the agreement of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and final negotiations on climate change at COP21. As well as examining the challenges of attributing reductions to individual actions, it provides an overview of energy efficiency and renewable energy activities in developing countries and uses case studies to illustrate their impact on current emission levels. The NEG report analyses nearly 6,000 renewable energy and energy efficiency activities in developing countries to highlight the potential emissions savings if programmes and initiatives are further supported. Findings in this report reveal common challenges in measuring and reporting emissions reductions, including insufficient data and lack of a unified methodology.

Attachment:Narrowing the Emissions Gap.pdf


Emissions Gap Report 2014: A UNEP Synthesis Report

“Emissions gap” series published by the United Nations Environment Programme analyse the size of the gap and provide insights on options to close it. This report provides an updated measure of the emissions gap. The report calculates an emissions gap relative to expected emission levels in 2030, in recognition of the growing focus that action beyond 2020 is gaining in international climate change negotiations. It provides an assessment of the carbon budget that is consistent with the 2° Celsius temperature target. The report explores the multiple benefits of tried and tested development policies – benefits in terms of, for example, employment creation, economic growth, improved environmental quality and, not least, reduced greenhouse gas emissions.

Attachment: Emissions Gap Report 2014.pdf



Water and sanitation interlinkages across the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development

The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (2030 Agenda) admitted the integrated and indivisible nature of its 17 Sustainable Development Goals and 169 targets and identified  the need to address these interlinkages to fully achieve its aims. The water and sanitation Sustainable Development Goal, Goal 6, links across all the other 16 Goals. This report provides an overview of the target-level linkages and how they are interdependent; many targets cannot be achieved without also meeting the targets under Goal 6, and vice versa. This report also summarizes the links and interdependencies between the targets under Goal 6 itself. It stresses the importance of “leaving no one behind”, and recognized that this can only be achieved if the interlinkages between the Goals are understood and actions are undertaken to bring them together for the benefit of all, including addressing socioeconomic and gender inequalities.

Attachment:Water and sanitation interlinkages across the 2030 Agenda.pdf



Asian Water Development Outlook 2016: Strengthening Water Security in Asia and the Pacific (AWDO 2016)

The Asian Development Bank recognizes water security as an overarching goal and translates this into development interventions through investment programs to meet the challenges of our region and its future. Asian Water Development Outlook 2016 Report provides a country-wise snapshot of the region’s water security status, enabling policy makers, financing institutions, and planners to make more informed decisions on how to improve their performance in the water sector.

Attachment:Asian Water Development Outlook 2016



Assessing Global Land Use: Balancing consumption with Sustainable Supply

Assessing Global Land Use Report provides a comprehensive overview of the scientific options for sustainable land management. It points to an alarming reality about rapidly expanding global cropland at the expense of savannahs, grasslands and forests, and the expected rise of demand for food, fibre and fuel will only increase the pressure on land resource base. If current conditions continue, by 2050, between 320 and 849 million hectares (nearly the size of Brazil) of natural land could be converted to cropland.  This report examines the main causes for cropland expansion, proposes an estimated reference value for this expansion to occur within sustainable levels, and presents a set of realistic policy options to keep global cropland expansion within this safe operating space.

Attachment: Assessing Global Land Use.pdf



Burning opportunity: clean household energy for health, sustainable development, and wellbeing of women and children

Household air pollution is the single most important environmental health risk worldwide, and women & children are at particularly high risk from exposure. This WHO report provides new data on the still-pervasive use of polluting fuels for home cooking, lighting and heating, as well as an in-depth look at the impacts on women and children. Despite more than a decade of work to reduce domestic air pollution sources, progress toward universal access to clean cooking fuels remains far too slow. Almost 3.1 billion people still rely on polluting, inefficient energy systems such as biomass, coal or kerosene to meet their daily cooking needs – a number virtually unchanged over the past decade. Further, many households still depend on polluting fuels and devices for heating and lighting – particularly kerosene.

Attachment:Burning opportunity.pdf



Global Sustainable Development Report, 2015

The current Report responds to the Rio 20 mandate to contribute to strengthening the science-policy interface (SPI) for sustainable development, particularly in the context of the High-level political forum (HLPF) on sustainable development. It has two dimensions – a prominent role for science and an Integrated approach to implementing the SDGs and the post-2015 development agenda – critically shape the policy space for sustainable development. The report offers suggestions on how to strengthen scientists’ engagement with policy makers at national and international levels. The report examines the SDGs as an interlinked system, analyzing how the goals are interrelated through their targets, and how progress towards one goal may depend on and contribute to progress towards others. It provides a survey of scientific findings that includes oceans and livelihoods, natural disasters, industrialization, sustainable consumption and production, and use of “big data” in Africa.

Attachment:Global Sustainable Development Report, 2015.pdf



Global Sustainable Development Report (GSDR) 2016

The Report is build  upon the 2014 and 2015 reports, GSDR 2016 responds to the mandate from the Rio 20 Conference to  contribute to strengthening the science-policy interface for  sustainable development in the context of the high-level  political forum on sustainable development (HLPF).Theme of GSDR 2016 is “Ensuring that no one is left behind”. With the adoption of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development with its sustainable development goals (SDGs), the report adopts the SDGs as its scope. True to its mandate, the report is designed as an assessment of assessments. It endeavours to present a range of scientific perspectives and to be policy-relevant but not policy-prescriptive.

Attachment:Global Sustainable Development Report 2016.pdf


Global Tracking Framework 2017: progress towards sustainable energy

The third edition of the GTF provides an evidence-based look at progress at the regional, country, and international level toward ensuring universal access to modern energy services, doubling the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix, and doubling the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency. The report provides an overview of long-term trends since 1990 and focuses on progress achieved in the most recent period, 2012–14.

Attachment:Global Tracking Framework 2017