Climate commitments of sub national actors and business

Initiatives which catalyse climate action are now recognised increasingly as playing an important role in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) and bridging the global emissions gap. The number and range of these initiatives is growing rapidly. There are several open questions about these initiatives at a global scale, including what contribution they can make to close the emissions gap, but also what makes a successful initiative and how can this be replicated and scaled up. This paper focuses on the first of these questions

This paper presents a quantitative assessment of the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions mitigation impact in 2020 of current non-state climate action.Its focus is initiatives with the potential to be large scale. The study predicts that over the next few years, new targets for the post 2020 period will be agreed by existing and new members of initiatives. Thus any quantification now for post 2020 would likely lead to an underestimate of the contribution from initiatives. The total calculated impact represents the GHG emission reduction and takes into account overlaps between initiatives. It also estimates to what extent the emission reductions are additional to those achieved through climate action of national governments.

Attachment:Climate commitments of sub national actors and business.pdf

Global Bio energy Supply and Demand Projections: A working paper for REmap 2030

Biomass has an auspicious future in the world’s supply of renewable energy. REmap 2030, the global roadmap developed by the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), foresees a major role for modern, sustainable biomass technologies in efforts to double the share of renewables in the energy mix. This working paper, Global Bioenergy Supply and Demand Projections for the Year 2030, examines the potential in different regions and with different technologies for rapid and sustainable scale-up of this vital renewable energy resource.

If all the technology options envisaged in the REmap analysis are deployed, biomass use could reach 108 exajoules (EJ) worldwide by 2030, double the current level, and could account for 20% of total primary energy supply and 60% of final renewable energy use

 Attachment:Global Bio energy Supply and Demand Projections: A working paper for REmap 2030

Assessment of Ground Water Quality in Punjab, India

In this paper, groundwater quality in respect of native groundwater has been determined in entire State of Punjab during the installation of observation wells under World Bank aided Hydrology Project Phase II undertaken during 2009-14 by Water Resources and Environment Directorate, Punjab. The results of sampling done during installation of observation wells show that the groundwater quality in the depth range of 45-60 m on the basis of EC and RSC is categorized as: fit in 53% and marginal to unfit in remaining 47%.

Attachment:Assessment of Ground Water Quality in Punjab, India

Cancer Deaths in Agricultural Heartland: A  Study in Malwa Region of Indian Punjab

Indian state of Punjab is increasingly under focus for the increasingly incidence of cancer mortality as well as indiscriminate use of pesticides in agricultural practices. This study investigates cancer mortality, and its correlations with numerous variables, including demographic characteristics, cropping pattern and pesticide residues in soil and water. Cancer mortality data for a period of five years (2002-06) was collected from 30 randomly selected villages in Malwa region of Punjab. 15 villages were selected from cancer prone "high risk" districts of Muktsar, Faridkot, Bathinda and Mansa, and the other 15 from "low risk" districts of Sangrur, Barnala, Moga and Firozpur. Cropping pattern was obtained and pesticide residues analysis conducted on composite soil and water samples from each village.

 Attachment: Cancer Deaths in Agricultural Heartland: A Study in Malwa Region of Indian Punjab

Overview of Ground Water in India

The Standing Committee on Water Resources examined the subject ‘Review of ground water scenario, need for a comprehensive policy and measures to address problems in the country with particular reference to (i) dark blocks, and (ii) contamination of underground water by certain industries’ and submitted their report in December 2015. The Committee’s recommendations are summarised in the annexure to the note. Committees usually review the action taken by the government on their recommendations, a few months after the report is released. In this context, PRS present an analysis of the ground water scenario in the country. This note maps the indicators regarding availability of ground water in the country, the policy framework and some key issues with regard to the sector.

 Attachment: Overview of Ground Water in India

Interim Assessment of Revised National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans (NBSAPS)

This study is a collaborative work of United Nations Environment Programme, Global Environment Facility, UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC).This interim assessment of post-2010 NBSAPs undertakes a preliminary review of how countries have considered the Strategic Plan of the CBD and the readiness to achieve the Aichi Targets at national level. Although the assessment is based on a limited number of NBSAPs developed after 2010, indications are that most NBSAPs use the Aichi Targets as an overall framework to set national targets and/or national priorities for action. However, as was the case for pre-2010 NBSAPs, issues of a cross-cutting nature beyond the direct drivers of biodiversity loss have received limited attention. This also applies to legal preparedness and resource mobilization for biodiversity. The assessment provides specific examples of national actions suggested in the revised NBSAPs, and a set of generic recommendations for countries that are still to finalize their NBSAPs.

 Attachment: Interim Assessment of Revised National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans.Pdf

Nile River Basin: Stock Taking of Adaptation Activities in the Nile River Basin

Africa is one of the most vulnerable continents to climate change and climate variability, a situation aggravated by the interaction of ‘multiple stresses’, occurring at various levels, and low adaptive capacity. Climate change is also likely to aggravate water stress currently faced by some countries in the Nile River Basin, while others that do not currently experience water stress will become at a risk of water stress. According to empirical evidence, climate change in Africa is a fact that has a strong impact on Africa’s water resources. Adaptation to this impact is of crucial importance for political and socio-economic stability and economic growth. There is a great need for adaptation strategies to be developed together with all partners on the basis of sub-regional future scenarios, including expected changes to the hydrological cycle and impact on agriculture and food security. This desktop study by United Nations Environment Programme was undertaken with the aim of identifying key stakeholders and partners at continental, sub-regional, basin, national and local levels, with a particular focus on a wide range of actors such as intergovernmental institutions, regional economic commissions, government agencies, development partners, non-states actors, and research institutions working in the pursuit for adaptation solutions in the Nile Basin.

Attachment: Nile River Basin: Stock Taking of Adaptation Activities in the Nile River Basin.Pdf


Clarifying the role of coastal and marine systems in climate mitigation

The study was done by researchers from the University of Maryland, with support from NOAA, and appears in the Journal Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. The international scientific community is increasingly recognizing the role of natural systems in climate-change mitigation. While forests have historically been the primary focus of such efforts, coastal wetlands – particularly seagrasses, tidal marshes, and mangroves – are now considered important and effective long-term carbon sinks. However, some members of the coastal and marine policy and management community have been interested in expanding climate mitigation strategies to include other components within coastal and marine systems, such as coral reefs, phytoplankton, kelp forests, and marine fauna. This study analyze the scientific evidence regarding whether these marine ecosystems and ecosystem components are viable long-term carbon sinks and whether they can be managed for climate mitigation. The findings of this study could assist decision makers and conservation practitioners in identifying which components of coastal and marine ecosystems should be prioritized in current climate mitigation strategies and policies.

Attachment: Clarifying the role of coastal and marine systems in climate mitigation.Pdf

Assessing recent warming using instrumentally homogeneous sea surface temperature records

A new study “Assessing recent warming using instrumentally homogeneous sea surface temperature records” Published in Science Advances has shown that a 2015 NOAA paper finding that the Earth is warming more rapidly than previously thought was correct. The data is used from buoys, satellites, and Argo floats to construct separate instrumentally homogenous sea surface temperature records of the past two decades. The scientists compared them to the old NOAA ERSSTv3b record, the new ERSSTv4 record, the Hadley Centre’s HadSST3 record, and the Japanese COBE-SST record. The Scientists found a strong and significant cool bias in the old NOAA record, and a more modest (but still significant) cool bias in the Hadley and Japanese records compared to buoy, satellite, and Argo float data. The new NOAA record agrees quite well with these instrumentally homogenous records. This suggests that the new NOAA record is likely the most accurate sea surface temperature record in recent years, and should help resolve some of the criticism that accompanied the original NOAA study. The laborious process in which scientists check and recheck their work and subject their ideas to peer review has led to another success. An independent test of global warming data has confirmed a groundbreaking 2015 study that showed warming was faster than prior estimates. 

Attachment: Assessing recent warming using instrumentally homogeneous sea surface temperature records.pdf